Functions of Adverbs

Icon of person in wheelchair, tilted back, flames coming from wheelAdverbs can perform a wide range of functions: they can modify verbs, adjectives, and even other adverbs. They can come either before or after the word they modify. In the following examples, adverbs are in bold, while the words they modify are in italics (the quite handsome man):

  • The desk is made of an especially corrosion-resistant industrial steel.
  • The power company uses huge generators which are generally turned by steam turbines.
  • Jaime won the race, because he ran quickly.
  • This fence was installed sloppily. It needs to be redone.

An adverb may provide information about the manner, place, time, frequency, certainty, or other circumstances of the activity indicated by the verb. Some examples, where again the adverb is in bold and the words modified are in italics:

  • Suzanne sang loudly (loudly modifies the verb sang, indicating the manner of singing)
  • We left it here (here modifies the verb phrase left it, indicating place)
  • I worked yesterday (yesterday modifies the verb worked, indicating time)
  • He undoubtedly did it (undoubtedly modifies the verb phrase did it, indicating certainty)
  • You often make mistakes (often modifies the verb phrase make mistakes, indicating frequency)

They can also modify noun phrases, prepositional phrases, or whole clauses or sentences, as in the following examples. Once again the adverbs are in bold, while the words they modify are in italics.

  • I bought only the fruit (only modifies the noun phrase the fruit)
  • Roberto drove us almost to the station (almost modifies the prepositional phrase to the station)
  • Certainly we need to act (certainly modifies the sentence as a whole)


Identify the adverbs in these paragraphs:

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However, compared to other important stratigraphic boundaries, like the end-Triassic or the end-Cretaceous, the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary remains really poorly understood.

Intensifiers and Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs can also be used as modifiers of adjectives, and of other adverbs, often to indicate degree. Here are a few examples:

  • You are quite right (the adverb quite modifies the adjective right)
  • Milagros is exceptionally pretty (the adverb exceptionally modifies the adjective pretty)
  • She sang very loudly (the adverb very modifies another adverb—loudly)
  • Wow! You ran really quickly! (the adverb really modifies another adverb—quickly)

Other intensifiers include mildlyprettyslightly, etc.

This video provides more discussion and examples of intensifiers:

Adverbs may also undergo comparison, taking comparative and superlative forms. This is usually done by adding more and most before the adverb (more slowly, most slowly). However, there are a few adverbs that take non-standard forms, such as well, for which better and best are used (i.e., “He did well, she did better, and I did best“).

Note: When using intensifiers alongside the adverb alsoalso should always appear first: “He also really loved pie” is correct, while “He really also loved pie” is not.


Some people are of the opinion that the words very and really indicate weak writing. You’ve probably seen lists of adjectives to use instead of these adverbs (along with an adjective). While this can be true in some cases (enormous or gigantic would probably serve better than “really big”), very and really aren’t terrible words. As in most cases, you just need to be conscious of your choices. When you use these adverbs, pause and see if there’s a better way to word what you’re saying.

Relative Adverbs

Relative adverbs are a subclass of adverbs that deal with space, time, and reason. In this video, David gives a quick intro to the three most common relative adverbs: whenwhere, and why.

As we just learned, we can use these adverbs to connect ideas about where, when, and why things happen.


Read the following questions and turn them into statements using relative adverbs:

  1. Where did Nina last see her keys?
  2. When are the repairmen going to get here?
  3. Why did the desk just collapse?