MLA style is one of the most common citation and formatting styles you will encounter in your academic career. Any piece of academic writing can use MLA style, from a one-page paper to a full-length book. It is widely used by in many high school and introductory college English classes, as well as scholarly books and professional journals. If you are writing a paper for a literature or media studies class, it is likely your professor will ask you to write in MLA style.
The newest edition of the MLA Handbook, the 8th Edition, was released in April 2016. We will focus on the newest changes, but you should be aware that some institutions or instructors may still utilize the previous 7th edition of the handbook. While the overall principles of creating a works cited page and using in-text citations remains the same, there are a few key changes and updates that make the citation process easier for our modern uses. For example, the guidelines now state that you should always include a URL of an internet source, you can use alternative author names, such as Twitter handles, and you no longer need to include the publisher (in some instances), and you don’t need to include the city where a source was published. These new changes are less nit-picky and allow for a more streamlined citation process that will work with the wide variety of source locations (i.e., YouTube videos, songs, clips from TV episodes, websites, periodicals, books, academic journals, poems, interviews, etc.).
Why Citations Are Essential
Watch this video to see examples of why citations are important. They give credit to others, provide evidence for your argument, leave a trail of sources for others to investigate, and protect against plagiarism.
The Purpose of MLA Style
The MLA style guide aims to accomplish several goals:
- to ensure consistent use of the English language in academic writing;
- to ensure consistent formatting and presentation of information, for the sake of clarity and ease of navigation; and
- to ensure proper attribution of ideas to their original sources, for the sake of intellectual integrity.
There are many fantastic resources out there that can make the formatting and citation process easier. Some common style guides are found at:
- The Purdue Online Writing Lab: this is a popular resource that concisely explains how to properly format and cite in various academic styles.
- Baltimore City Community College: MLA 8th Edition – Citations for the Works Cited Page
Reference management websites and applications can also assist you in tracking and recording your research. Most of these websites will even create the works cited page for you! Some of the most popular citation tools are: