- identify the relationship between a potential source and the writing task
- identify strategies for evaluating the rhetorical context (author, purpose, audience) of a source
- identify strategies for evaluating the authority, reliability, and effectiveness of a source (the C.R.A.A.P. method)
- identify strategies for comparison and synthesis between multiple sources
Good researchers and writers examine their sources critically and actively. They do not just compile and summarize these research sources in their writing, but use them to create their own ideas, theories, and, ultimately, their own, new understanding of the topic they are researching. Such an approach means not taking the information and opinions that the sources contain at face value and for granted, but to investigate, test, and even doubt every claim, every example, every story, and every conclusion.
In this section you’ll learn about analyzing sources and how to utilize the C.R.A.A.P test to verify that your source is useful and relevant.
You will need to evaluate each source you consider using by asking two questions:
- Is this source trustworthy?
- Is this source suitable?
Not every suitable source is trustworthy, and not every trustworthy source is suitable.
Your task as a researcher is to determine the appropriateness of the information your source contains, for your particular research project. It is a simple question, really: will this source help me answer the research questions that I am posing in my project? Will it help me learn as much as I can about my topic? Will it help me write an interesting, convincing essay for my readers?
Click through the slideshow to read about techniques for analyzing sources and differentiating between popular and scholarly sources.
Tools for Evaluating Sources
Need a good way to evaluate a source? Take a look at its “craap”!
The C.R.A.A.P. method is a way to determine the validity and relevance of a source. C.R.A.A.P. stands for
- C: Currency. When was the information published?
- R: Relevance. How relevant to your goals is the information?
- A: Authority. How well does the author of the information know the information?
- A: Accuracy. How reliable is the information?
- P: Purpose. Why does this information exist in this way?
If the source you’re looking at is fairly current, relevant, and accurate, it’s probably a good source to use. Depending on the aim of your paper, you’ll be looking for an authority and purpose that are unbiased and informative.
Using Sources in Your Paper
Within the pages of your research essay, it is important to properly reference and cite your sources to avoid plagiarism and to give credit for original ideas.
There are three main ways to put a source to use in your essay: you can quote it, you can summarize it, and you can paraphrase it.
Direct quotations are words and phrases that are taken directly from another source, and then used word-for-word in your paper. If you incorporate a direct quotation from another author’s text, you must put that quotation or phrase in quotation marks to indicate that it is not your language.
When writing direct quotations, you can use the source author’s name in the same sentence as the quotation to introduce the quoted text and to indicate the source in which you found the text. You should then include the page number or other relevant information in parentheses at the end of the phrase (the exact format will depend on the formatting style of your essay).
Summarizing involves condensing the main idea of a source into a much shorter overview. A summary outlines a source’s most important points and general position. When summarizing a source, it is still necessary to use a citation to give credit to the original author. You must reference the author or source in the appropriate citation method at the end of the summary.
When paraphrasing, you may put any part of a source (such as a phrase, sentence, paragraph, or chapter) into your own words. You may find that the original source uses language that is more clear, concise, or specific than your own language, in which case you should use a direct quotation, putting quotation marks around those unique words or phrases you don’t change.
It is common to use a mixture of paraphrased text and quoted words or phrases, as long as the direct quotations are inside of quotation marks.
Providing Context for Your Sources
Whether you use a direct quotation, a summary, or a paraphrase, it is important to distinguish the original source from your ideas, and to explain how the cited source fits into your argument. While the use of quotation marks or parenthetical citations tells your reader that these are not your own words or ideas, you should follow the quote with a description, in your own terms, of what the quote says and why it is relevant to the purpose of your paper. You should not let quoted or paraphrased text stand alone in your paper, but rather, should integrate the sources into your argument by providing context and explanations about how each source supports your argument.
Using Multiple Sources
Sources are a great help for understanding a topic more deeply. But what about when sources don’t quite agree with one another, or challenge what you have experienced yourself?
This is where your skill of synthesis comes into play, as a writer. Synthesizing includes comparison and contrast, but also allows you to combine multiple perspectives on a topic to reach a deeper understanding.
This video explains the process of synthesis in action.