Published on
June 10, 2024
by
Magedah Shabo.
Revised on
July 25, 2024.

Ambiguity occurs when an expression or idea is unclear or open to multiple interpretations. Unintentional ambiguity can be confusing and can lead to misunderstandings.

Loaded questions are designed to make someone concede an unproven point. They are considered a form of logical fallacy because they undermine honest discussion.

Examples of loaded questions are common in media, politics, and everyday conversations.

Published on
May 30, 2024
by
Magedah Shabo.
Revised on
July 6, 2024.

Reductio ad absurdum is the strategy of disproving a claim by demonstrating its logical contradictions. This involves assuming the claim is true to show that it leads to contradictions and cannot actually be true.

Reductio ad absurdum is used in philosophy, mathematics, law, and other disciplines where logical consistency is important.

Published on
May 8, 2024
by
Magedah Shabo.
Revised on
June 7, 2024.

A disjunctive syllogism is an argument with two premises and a conclusion that describes an either–or relationship. The conclusion is derived through a process of elimination when one of the two options is negated.

Disjunctive syllogisms are typically used in formal logic, but mathematics, computer programming, and other disciplines often use the same pattern of reasoning expressed in different ways.

Published on
May 5, 2024
by
Magedah Shabo.
Revised on
August 2, 2024.

Deductive reasoning involves forming a specific conclusion from general premises.

A deductive argument typically starts with a broad principle, applies it to a particular situation or example, and leads to an inevitable conclusion.

Deduction is the mode of reasoning used in formal logic, which has applications in mathematics, logic, science, and law. In everyday decision-making and thought processes, deductive reasoning often falls into the category of “common sense” thinking.

Published on
May 4, 2024
by
Magedah Shabo.
Revised on
July 8, 2024.

A syllogism is an argument that consists of two premises and a conclusion. Syllogisms express deductive reasoning, forming specific conclusions from general principles.

Syllogisms are typically found in academic and professional domains, such as formal logic and mathematics. We often use syllogistic reasoning to make decisions in everyday life even if we don’t often express these thoughts verbally.

Published on
May 3, 2024
by
Magedah Shabo.
Revised on
August 2, 2024.

Modus tollens is a valid form of deductive argument also known as denying the consequent.

Used in formal logic, modus tollens is a type of hypothetical syllogism that involves an if–then statement followed by a negation of the “then” statement (i.e., the consequent). It is typically expressed as follows:

If P, then Q.

Not Q.

Therefore, not P.

Modus tollens is used to demonstrate that a hypothesis is false when a necessary condition is not met.

Published on
April 26, 2024
by
Magedah Shabo.
Revised on
August 2, 2024.

Modus ponens is a type of conditional syllogism that takes the following form:

If P, then Q.

P.

Therefore, Q.

Arguments that correctly apply this form are valid, meaning that the conclusion follows logically from the premises.

The reasoning expressed in modus ponens and other formal arguments is especially crucial in contexts such as philosophical debates, legal reasoning, scientific research, mathematical proofs, computer science, and natural language processing.

Published on
April 17, 2024
by
Magedah Shabo.
Revised on
July 3, 2024.

Black-and-white thinking is the tendency to categorize people, situations, and ideas in extreme, absolute terms, such as “good vs. evil,” leaving no room for nuance or neutrality.

In reasoning and argumentation, engaging in black-and-white thinking makes people vulnerable to certain logical fallacies. In creative writing and other artistic forms, black-and-white thinking can limit creativity and depth, reducing the complexity of characters, plots, and themes.