Affirming the Consequent | Examples & Definition

Affirming the consequent is the logical fallacy of assuming a particular cause must be true just because its expected outcome is true.

The formula for affirming the consequent is as follows:

  • If P, then Q.
  • Q.
  • Therefore, P.
Affirming the consequent fallacy example
  • If I am sick, then I will feel fatigued.
  • I feel fatigued.
  • Therefore, I am sick.

The fallacy of affirming the consequent is typically found in contexts such as formal logic, law, and mathematics.

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What Is a Transitive Verb? | Examples, Definition & Quiz

Transitive verbs are verbs that require a direct object to complete their meaning. The direct object (which can be a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase) receives the action of the verb.

For example, the sentence “The builder constructed a new house” would not make sense without the direct object, “a new house.”

Intransitive verbs, in contrast, do not require a direct object to complete their meaning. They express a complete action without an object. For example, the verb “sleep” makes sense without an object (e.g., “The children slept”).

Ambitransitive verbs are verbs that can be used with or without a direct object, depending on the context (e.g., “sing,” “read,” “eat”).

Transitive verbs examples
Beethoven composed piano sonatas.

The medics administer life-saving treatments.

The chef carefully lifted the plate.

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What Is a Concrete Noun? | Examples, Definition & Quiz

Concrete nouns name people, places, and things that we can perceive with our five senses.

Not limited to solid or tangible objects that you could theoretically touch, concrete nouns can also name anything that can be heard (e.g., “symphony”), seen (e.g., “sunlight”), tasted (e.g., “sourness”), or felt without being touched (e.g., “heat”). Words such as “spaceship,” “Mariana Trench,” “amoeba,” and “Jeffrey” are all concrete nouns.

In contrast, abstract nouns describe mental constructs. These include feelings, frameworks, and concepts that cannot be directly perceived, such as “fascination,” “sleepiness,” “Pareto principle,” and “motif.”

Examples: Concrete nouns
Visitors to Loch Ness claim to have seen a monster.

My cat thinks my keyboard is a bed.

Pietr enjoyed the sun but also loved the rain.

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What Is an Intransitive Verb? | Examples, Definition & Quiz

Intransitive verbs are verbs that don’t take a direct object (a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase that receives the action of a verb). For example, “exist” is an intransitive verb, as it’s not possible to “exist” something.

In contrast, a transitive verb is one that does require a direct object. A sentence that uses the verb “examined,” for instance, would not make sense without specifying who or what receives the action of the verb (e.g., “Mary examined the manuscript”). Depending on the context in which they’re used, some verbs can function as either transitive or intransitive verbs.

Examples: Intransitive verbs in a sentence
Philip cringed.

Madeline sneezes often.

Renate is jogging along the path.

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What Is a Present Participle? | Definition & Examples

The present participle form of a verb can be used in two ways: as an adjective or as part of a continuous verb tense.

Every present participle ends in “-ing” (this includes both regular verbs and irregular verbs).

Present participle examples 
Rubin found linguistics to be a fascinating subject.

Being a bit naughty, the children snuck into the movie theater.

We would love to attend, but we’re competing in a race that day.

I’ve been having vivid dreams lately.

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What Is a Noun Clause? | Definition & Examples

A noun clause is a type of dependent clause that functions as a noun. As a dependent clause, it contains a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as a sentence.

Noun clauses typically begin with relative pronouns (e.g., “which,” “that,” “who”) or subordinating conjunctions (e.g., “if,” “whether”).

Noun clause examples
She mentioned that she would be late.

Whichever cake you choose will be a hit.

The fact that she is talented is undeniable.

I hope whoever finds my phone will return it.

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What Is an Abstract Noun? | Definition, Examples & Quiz

Abstract nouns name mental constructs that are imperceptible to the five senses (e.g., “concern,” “existentialism,” “democracy,” “ancestry”).

In contrast, concrete nouns name people, places, or things that can be perceived physically.

Examples: Abstract nouns
Genealogy is fascinating.

The changing seasons usher in new fashion trends.

In today’s class we’ll discuss the final chapter.

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What Is a Common Noun? | Examples & Definition

Common nouns are not capitalized—they are general terms for people, places, things, or ideas (e.g., “father,” “village,” “pencil,” “envy”). Proper nouns, in contrast, are always capitalized.

A common noun can name something concrete (e.g., “infant”) or abstract (e.g., “love”), including types of living organisms, inanimate objects, and intangible concepts.

Examples: Common nouns
The squirrel narrowly escaped the owl by hiding in the bushes.

In his desperation, he considered the possibility of leaving the country.

Now an old man, Bill was proud to see his grandson take over the company.

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What Is a Participle? | Definition, Types & Examples

Participles are formed from verbs and can serve as adjectives and indicate tense. The primary types of participles are past and present.

  • Past participles (e.g., “ran,” “clapped,” “burnt”) are a component of perfect tenses, and they also appear in sentences written in the passive voice. Typically, past participles take the following endings: “-ed,” “-t,” “-en,” “-n,” or “-ne.”
  • Present participles indicate continuous tenses and always take an “-ing” ending.
Examples: Past and present participles
Rumored to be haunted, the house decayed slowly.
Avi hinted that she might not stay long.

I heard James practicing his violin.

Sharon gazed out the window at a stunning sunset.

Note
Although we use the terms “past” and “present” to label participles, these terms do not directly indicate the tense being used. Participles, whether past or present, can be used to form verbs in past, present, or future tenses. Past and present participles can also both be used as adjectives.

The QuillBot Grammar Checker can help ensure you use past and present participles correctly.

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What Is a Comparative Adjective? | Definition & Examples

A comparative adjective indicates a higher or lower degree of a specific attribute (e.g., “faster,” “less trusted”) in a comparison of two people, things, or groups.

Most comparative adjectives are created either by adding the suffix “-er” (e.g., “younger”) or by adding “more” (e.g., “more famous”) or “less” (e.g., “less popular”) before the adjective. The form each comparative adjective takes is determined in part by the number of syllables in the original adjective.

Comparative adjectives examples
The coffee is hotter at the café across the street.

The blue dress is prettier than the green one.

This phone is more expensive than the previous model.

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