Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting: Similar Yet Different

Summarizing is condensing information; paraphrasing is rewording information; and quoting is copying information inside quotation marks.

Most of the time, when you’re referring back to a previous conversation, text, or piece of media, you’re not recalling each part exactly as it happened—that would require a memory better than any of us probably have!

Instead, you’re going to be either paraphrasing what you heard or read, summarizing the information learned, or directly quoting pieces of what you remember.

Summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting are all closely related actions, which can make them difficult to tell apart in certain circumstances.

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What Is a Research Paper Appendix?

An appendix is a section added to the end of a research paper to give readers extra information. Appendices are labeled with numbers or letters and are often a good place to include data that might be distracting in the main text.

The word appendix comes from the root word append, a verb meaning “to attach or add.” Humans also have a body part we call an appendix, which has a reputation for being a useless extra. Although we can live without it, that body part has a function—and a research paper appendix is the same way. It may not be essential to the paper, but it’s good to have.

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What Is an Annotated Bibliography? Purpose, Types, and Format

Most people know what a bibliography is—a list of sources at the end of a document. But what does it mean for it to be annotated? An annotated bibliography is a list of sources along with the compiler’s comments on each one.

Each reference gives complete citation information for the source and includes a single-paragraph comment, also called an annotation, at the end.

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A Guide to In-Text Citation | APA & MLA Examples

An in-text citation appears in a written text and gives credit to a source’s original author. They usually include information within a set of parentheses, like the author’s name, the publication date of the source, and the page number the quote is from.

Example: APA Style in-text citation
(Brown, 1997, p. 188)

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What Does Ibid. Mean? | Definition & Uses

Ibid.” is a term used in academic writing to cite a source that has already been cited in the text. It’s used to direct the reader to the previous footnote or endnote, where the full citation can be found.

“Ibid.” is the abbreviated form of “ibidem,” a Latin term meaning “in the same place.”

Examples: Ibid. in Chicago-style footnote
1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit (London: HarperCollins, 2009), 15.
2. Ibid.

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Et Al. | Meaning & Use in MLA, APA & Chicago

Et al.” is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase “et alia,” meaning “and others.” It’s commonly used in academic writing when citing a source with multiple authors.

Examples: Et al. in a sentence
Pirreno et al. (2024) proposed the first framework for…

Past studies have supported the relationship between sugar consumption and cavities (Tsoklat et al., 2024).

How “et al.” is used depends on the style guide you are following. Three of the most common style guides, MLA, APA, and Chicago, each have slightly different rules regarding how to use “et al.”

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APA Reference Page | Example & Format

APA Style has specific guidelines for the format of the reference page, which is where you list all the sources you’ve cited in your paper. The guidelines here are for the most recent edition, the 7th edition, of the APA Publication Manual.

Your reference page should begin on a new page immediately after the main text, and the references should be listed in alphabetical order.

QuillBot’s free Citation Generator can help you order your references automatically.

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APA Website Citations | Format & Examples

To create an APA website citation, you’ll need the following information: author, publication date, title of the page, website name, and the URL.

In cases where there is no author, you can list the title of the article first. Retrieval dates are only needed for pages that will likely be updated frequently.

When you cite the electronic version of a print publication (e.g., a magazine, newspaper, or dictionary), you add the URL to the end of the typical print reference format.

APA website citation example
APA format Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Website Name. URL.
APA reference entry Suni, E, & Rosen, D. (2024, March 4). Mastering sleep hygiene: Your path to quality sleep. Sleep Foundation. https://www.sleepfoundation.org/sleep-hygiene
APA in-text citation (Suni & Rosen, 2024)

QuillBot’s free APA Citation Generator can automatically generate APA Style citations for you.

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Critical Thinking | Definition & Examples

Critical thinking is sometimes called “thinking about thinking” because it is a skill that helps you analyze information effectively. It is this ability that helps you to make a sound judgment about the information you encounter.

Thinking critically involves understanding your own preconceptions and biases. Being aware of your attitudes helps you to be consistent in your standards when evaluating sources.

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